english 1 - Life in Space | Audio Guide

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Welcome to Life in Space
Here we tell you about space and its wonders through the voice of the protagonists, their vision  and the extraordinary tools which allowed the exploration. More than eighty original objects provided by US SPACE ROCKET & CENTER (NASA visitors  center), ESA and ASI - spacecraft, satellites, rockets, scale models - will make you experience  man's greatest adventure, one which took him beyond his planet thanks to the courage and  intelligence of scientists, technicians and astronauts. However, before we plunge into this adventure and into the 400 square meters of pure Space  Camp interactivity, where you can experience the sensations astronauts and cosmonauts feel  during their training, we suggest you to reflect on these visionary words: "...We choose to go to the  moon in this decade and do the other things, not because they are easy, but because they are  hard...".  These words were delivered by John Kennedy on 12th September 1962, in a memorable speech  at Rice University, which marked a change of perspective among the superpowers who shared the  world at the time. In those difficult “Cold War” years this was the answer to the Soviet Union that  since 1957 had been challenging the USA in the cosmos, the space race, by putting into orbit the  first artificial satellite, Sputnik, the dog Laika and then the first human being, the cosmonaut Jurij  Gagarin.  Less known, but even more significant, is the other key passage in that speech, where President  Kennedy put at the center not competition, but the extraordinary potential of cooperation: “There is  no strife, no prejudice, no national conflict in outer space as yet. Its hazards are hostile to us all. Its  conquest deserves the best of all mankind, and its opportunity for peaceful cooperation many  never come again...”. This is how man's adventure into space began, and in a few years it would crown a dream that was  centuries old. This was the spirit of the endeavor that allowed the United States in July 1969 to  send men to the Moon and, in July 1975, allowed the docking of the Soviet Sojuz capsule and a  spacecraft of the Apollo program, involved in orbit in an embrace of great symbolic power.  The outcome of this collaboration never ceases to amaze us and today it is more relevant than  ever: The International Space Station represents perhaps the highest degree of complexity and  technological and scientific integration ever achieved. Built by the United States, Russia, the  European Union, Canada and Japan and continuously inhabited for twenty years, it has hosted  230 astronauts of 18 different nationalities.  From here we start, from today, from the ISS Window where we get the most beautiful photos of our Planet. The question is, how did we achieve this? What path has been taken? we'll go find out  together.

The Cupola (as called) is an ESA-built observatory module of the International Space Station (ISS), was built in Turin, Italy. Its name derives from the Italian word cupola, which means "dome".  It was launched aboard Space Shuttle mission STS-130 on 8 February 2010 and attached to the  Tranquility (Node 3) module. With the Cupola attached, ISS assembly reached 85 percent  completion.
The cupola is a small module designed for the observation of operations outside the station such  as robotic activities, the approach of vehicles, and spacewalks. Its six side windows and a direct  nadir viewing window provide spectacular views of Earth and celestial objects. The windows are  equipped with shutters to protect them from contamination and collisions with orbital debris or  micrometeorites.

Men on the Moon that it was a prophecy? Jules Verne's 1865 novel From the Earth to the Moon  describes a hypothetical journey to our satellite, anticipating by more than 100 years what actually  happened on July 20, 1969. The book tells of a projectile with three people on board, which  launched from a cannon, it manages to reach the moon. Verne's astronauts fail to land but remain  in orbit around our satellite. In the novel, one of the characters pronounces these words “for those  who don't see an inch beyond their nose, humanity should be condemned to vegetate on this  globe, never being able to free itself from the interplanetary spaces. But it won't be like this!!! You  will go to the moon, you will go to the planets, you will go to the stars, so simply when you can go  from Liverpool to New York…” just over a century later man really landed on the moon.

From the Earth to the Moon or (De la Terre à la Lune) by Jules Verne inspired generations,  including many pioneers of early spaceflight. Published in 1865, the members of the book’s  Baltimore Gun Club believe that a cannon could launch people in a projectile to the Moon. Verne’s  story of the mission comes eerily close to real life. While the capsule launches successfully, what  happens next is in the sequel Autour de la Lune or Around the Moon. This book is a first edition  printed in the original French.

Jules Verne, a popular science fiction writer, provided inspiration for many early rocketeers. From  the Earth to the Moon, written in 1865, told the story of three men who launched from Earth in a  cannon-like vehicle with the goal of landing on the Moon. Despite writing the book almost 100  years before humans accomplished this feat, many of Verne’s details appeared to foreshadow the  future. Some of the book’s mission scenarios are similar to NASA’s Apollo program activities. The  location of the launch, the size of the capsule to carry the crew, as well as approximate time to  reach the Moon proved to be very close to reality.

1928 Russian Book by K. Tsiolkovsky, 1st Ed., Kaluga “Earth is the cradle of humanity but one cannot live in the cradle forever” taken from a letter written by Konstantin Tsiolkovsky in 1911 Russian-born scientist and mathematician Konstantin Tsiolkovsky is often referred to as the father  of astronautics and human spaceflight. His visionary ideas for the future of humanity in space were  far ahead of his time. It is Tsiolkovsky who first determined that the escape velocity from the Earth into orbit was 8  km/second and that this could be achieved by using a multi-stage rocket fueled by liquid oxygen  and liquid hydrogen. During his lifetime he published over 500 works on space travel and related  subjects, including science fiction novels. Among his works are designs for the construction of space rockets and ideas for steerable rocket  engines, multi-stage boosters, space stations, airlocks for exiting a spaceship into the vacuum of  space, and closed cycle biological systems to provide food and oxygen for space colonies. This is  a remarkable achievement by any standards, but particularly as many of these documents were  written before the first aeroplane flight and, by a man who had had to abandon his formal  education at the age of 10.

Like all facets of current technology, astronautics has its origins and foundations in several  "pioneers" who, from the knowledge of the time, developed the first possible theories and  hypotheses, performed the experiments that would determine the possibility of space travel and  opened the way for the scientific community, supported by the state research apparatus, to carry  out the costly task of making human ingenuities, sometimes with people inside, abandon the  atmosphere and the extremely serious nature of our planet. The first to propose in a scientific way  various theories about interplanetary flight was the Russian Eduardovich Tsiolkovsky (1857-1935).  Deaf since childhood, is a self-taught formed from the reading of how much scientific book fell into  their hands. His is the idea that the ideal impeller for space travel is the rocket of liquid fuel,  hydrogen and oxygen, for which he designed on paper different mixing systems, valves and  ejection nozzles that have turned out to be very similar to those used in recent aerospace devices.  Another of the great propellants of the design of the rocket was Werner Von Braun. Since  childhood, Von Braun fell in love with the possibilities of space exploration through the novels of  Jules Verne and H.G. Wells and also through the scientific works of Hermann Oberth. Robert  Goddard launched the world’s first successful liquid propellant rocket. Prior to its development,  rockets and missiles used solid or powder propellants similar to gunpowder. Goddard’s rocket,  which he named Nell, reached an altitude of 41 feet (12.5 meters) and traveled 184 feet (56  meters) down range in a 2.5 second on March 16, 1926.
The prototype is on display here.

Length: 50.5 inches /128.27 cm
Maximum diameter: 6.7 inches / 17 cm
Boost: 9 lbs / 4.08 kg

Dr. Wernher von Braun (1912–1977) was the most important rocket developers and champions of  space exploration in the twentieth century  After reading Hermann Oberth’s Rocket into Interplanetary Space and receiving a telescope from  his mother, von Braun decided to become a space pioneer and physicist. At the age of 13, von  Braun got himself into trouble when he obtained six skyrockets, strapped them to a toy red wagon,  and set them off. Streaming flames and a long trail of smoke, the wagon roared five blocks into the  center of town, where the rockets then exploded. Known as “the father of space travel”. In 1937, he became Technical Director of the Rocket Center in Pennemunde, Germany and his  team developed the V-2 rocket that von Braun envisioned for space travel not war. A liquid  propellant missile 46 feet in length and weighing 27,000 pounds, the V-2 flew at speeds in excess  of 3,500 miles per hour and delivered a 2,200-pound warhead to a target 200 miles away. First  successfully launched in October 1942, it was employed against targets in Western Europe  beginning in September 1944. In April 1960, he became director of the George C. Marshall Space Flight Center at Huntsville for  NASA. His team developed the Saturn V that launched Apollo 5 to travel to the moon in 1969. In 1970, von Braun became NASA’s Deputy Associate Administrator for Planning in Washington. He helped found the National Space Institute in 1975 and served as its first president. During his lifetime Wernher von Braun had the good fortune to see his youthful dreams come true.  But he did far more than dream. His hard work, dedication, and research paved the way for the  peaceful exploration of space, landings on the moon, and the sending of inquisitive spacecraft out  into the cosmos.

In 1925 his mother gave him his first telescope and he soon decided to devote his life to rocketry and the exploration of space.

Inspiration changes lives. This replica of Wernher von Braun’s childhood notebook circa 1924 is  filled with sketches, calculations for fuel, supplies and materials needed for a space journey. The  illustrations with Russian notes are excerpts from a book by physicist Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.  Considered the father of modern rocket science and astronautics, Tsiolkovsky, born in 1857, was  the first to propose multi-stage rockets and liquid propellants. Notice the remarkable similarities  between the two drawings.

This little red wagon represents the dreams of a young missile pioneer. At age 12, Wernher von  Braun, designer of the V-2 rocket, the propulsion genius behind the American moon- landing  program, began his rocket experiments. Strapping six large fireworks to the sides of a wooden  wagon, von Braun set off down a crowded Berlin Street. The young scientist started pedestrian on  Tiergarten Strasse and knocked over fruit carts. Ultimately, the wagon was destroyed and the  police took the young Wernher home.

German World War II V-2 rocket injection valve used in the combustion chamber.
The valve measures 0.75” by 0.75”, in very good condition with minor rust accumulation The V-2 rocket was the world’s first long-range ballistic missile that was developed by Wernher von  Braun and his team during the Second World War in Nazi Germany, specifically targeted at  London and later Antwerp. Commonly referred to as the V-2 rocket, the liquid-propellant rocket  was a combat-ballistic missile and the first known human object to enter outer space. It was the  predecessor of all modern rockets, including those used by the United States and Soviet Union’s  space programs.

Starting line of the Space Race
With Sputnik, the "beep heard all over the world", the Soviets launched both the first space satellite  and the space race with the United States. Carried aboard a Vostok-K rocket, Sputnik was able to  teach scientists about the density of the atmosphere in the low earth orbit, as well as information  on the ionosphere. The Sputnik was a polished sphere, 23 inches / 58 centimeters in diameter,  with four external radio antennas to transmit radio pulses. Sputnik sent radio signals for 22 days  and orbited around the Earth for three months after the October 4, 1957 Launch. The Americans  reacted to Sputnik with curiosity and fear. This historical event accelerated the development of  American space technology. One of the models used in the tests is displayed here.

and other creatures in space
The history of animals in space is curious. The Mongolfier brothers began in 1783 by putting a  goose, a rooster and a sheep in the basket of a hot-air balloon. They flew for ten minutes and  landed unharmed, two kilometres away. A few months later, on 21st November, the first humans,  Pilatrev de Rozier and the Marquis d'Heraldes, were on board.  The little dog Laika was the first animal to enter orbit and prove that a mammal can live  weightlessly. It happened on 3rd November 1957. Unfortunately, Sputnik 2, which housed her, was  not intended for re-entry. Belka and Strelka were luckier, they were launched on 19th August 1960  with Sputnik 5 and returned safe and sound after 18 orbits around the Earth.

Vostok 1 was the first spacecraft to carry a human, Yuri A. Gagarin, into space, occurring 25 days  prior to the first U.S. suborbital flight. Because of concerns of adverse reactions to due to  experiencing weightlessness, the manual controls on the spacecraft were locked prior to launch  and the entire flight was under the control of ground personnel. The spacecraft consisted of a nearly spherical cabin covered with ablative material. There were  three small portholes and external radio antennas. Radios, a life support system, instrumentation,  and an ejection seat were contained in the manned cabin. This cabin was attached to a service  module that carried chemical batteries, orientation rockets, the main retro system, and added  support equipment for the total system. This module was separated from the manned cabin on  reentry. After one orbit, the spacecraft reentered the atmosphere and landed in Kazakhstan (about  26 km southwest of Engels) 1 hour 48 minutes after launch. The Vostok spacecraft was designed to eject the cosmonaut at approximately 7 km and allow him  to return to earth by parachute. Although initial reports made it unclear whether Gagarin landed in  this manner or returned in the spacecraft, subsequent reports confirmed that he did indeed eject  from the capsule. Radio communications with earth were continuous during the flight, and  television transmissions were also made from space.

Prior to space flights, high-altitude flights were developed in which experimental airplanes brushed  the stratosphere. It was military flights among which the spy planes stood out. Given the enormous  altitude at which they flew, pressure maintenance suits were developed that were the precursors of  the modern astronaut suit. As you can see, the Backan suit is very similar to the suit worn by  Austrian adventurer Felix Baumgartner, who was the current parachute jump recordman. Despite  the aesthetic difference, its construction principles are very similar. The Baklan full-pressure suit was developed by Zvezda for the crew of high altitude strategic  aviation aircraft since 1970. Derived from Baklan full pressure suit is the Strizh that is a space  suit that was originally developed for the crew of the Russian Buran space shuttle and resembled  the Sokol space suit worn by Soyuz crew members. It was designed to protect cosmonauts during  a possible ejection from the spacecraft at altitudes of up to 30 km and speeds of up to Mach 3 that  is a dimensionless quantity representing the ratio of flow velocity past a boundary to the  local speed of sound: M = u/c where: M is the Mach number, u is the local flow velocity with  respect to the boundaries (either internal, such as an object immersed in the flow, or external, like  a channel), and c is the speed of sound in the medium.

Gagarin is best remembered by a generation of Russian for pronouncing "Poyekhali!" as his  Vostok spacecraft lifted off the ground. The phrase can be translated as either "Let's Go!" or "We're  Off!" and is now a regular part of the Russian lexicon. But his most famous sentence was: Orbiting Earth in the spaceship, I saw how beautiful our planet  is. People, let us preserve and increase this beauty, not destroy it! Colonel Yuri A. Gagarin was born on a collective farm in a region west of Moscow, Russia on  March 9, 1934. His father was a carpenter. Yuri attended the local school for six years and  continued his education at vocational and technical schools.  Yuri Gagarin joined the Russian Air Force in 1955 and graduated with honors from the Soviet Air  Force Academy in 1957. Soon afterward, he became a military fighter pilot. By 1959, he had been  selected for cosmonaut training as part of the first group of USSR cosmonauts.  Yuri Gagarin flew only one space mission. On April 12, 1961 he became the first human to orbit Earth. Gagarin's spacecraft, Vostok 1, circled Earth at a speed of 27,400 kilometers per hour. The  flight lasted 108 minutes. At the highest point, Gagarin was about 327 kilometers above Earth.  Once in orbit, Yuri Gagarin had no control over his spacecraft. Vostok's reentry was controlled by a  computer program sending radio commands to the space capsule. Although the controls were  locked, a key had been placed in a sealed envelope in case an emergency situation made it  necessary for Gagarin to take control. As was planned, Cosmonaut Gagarin ejected after reentry  into Earth's atmosphere and landed by parachute.  Colonel Yuri Gagarin died on March 27, 1968 when the MiG-15 he was piloting crashed near  Moscow. At the time of his death, Yuri Gagarin was in training for a second space mission.

The VKK-6M is the most common flight suit in Soviet times, as well as in the Russian Air Force. It  is designed for long flights at high altitude. VKK stands for "vysotno-kompensiruyushchi kostyum"  or altitude compensation suit. These suits served as a test of future spacesuits. The suit connects  through the hoses to the connectors in the cockpit. There is no pressure control valve in the suit  itself because everything is controlled from inside the cabin. This suit was used in the MIG-25R in  1965.

Explorer 1
In response to the soviet’s Sputnik satellite achievement, the United States returned the launch  volley with Explorer 1. Explorer 1 , carried by a Jupiter-C rocket on January 31, 1958, provided  groundbreaking evidence of the existence of the Van Allen radiation belt which protects the Earth  from harmful solar radiation. All three upper stages were housed within the barrel dizzying 750  revolution per minute. The success of Explorer 1 by the United States Army led to the formation of  the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), a civilian organization dedicated to  the exploration of space.

Height: 69.55 ft/21.2m
Mass: 64.200 lb/29.180 Kg
Maximum diameter: 5,84 in/1,78m
Thrust at launch: 83.000 lb/37.648 Kg

In 1959, the U.S. needed a Cold War win and the country was eyeing spaceflight. And so a pair of  mismatched monkeys found themselves bundled up and placed in a Jupiter missile. Dubbed Able  and Baker, they became the first primates to survive spaceflight during a suborbital predawn flight  on May 28, 1959. Their survival made them instant celebrities, although spaceflight was not the  most dramatic part of their stories. To announce their successful flight, NASA unveiled Able and  Baker to journalists in the same room where just a month prior they had introduced the Mercury 7  as the country's first human astronaut candidates.
Here, Able, who was a squirrel monkey.
The only cats that flew into space in the 1960s were two French cats, one returned alive, the other  died during the mission. After 2000, Iran also carried out experiments by using animals, mainly  monkeys, to be launched into space. In 2013 a monkey, probably a macaque, was the protagonist  of a flight that ended with the return of the animal, still alive,from space. Over the years, there has  been increasing criticism from animal activists who consider the use of unconscious animals for  space experiments obsolete and unnecessarily cruel.

During the space race, both America and Russia were thinking about what to name their space  explorers. The countries wanted an easy way to help people tell the difference between America  space explorers and Russian ones. In the end, American space agency Nasa settled on astronauts  and the Soviet Union decided on cosmonauts. The requirements for becoming either an astronaut or cosmonaut are a little bit different as each  country has it's own guidelines which they follow.
However, the jobs are pretty much the same! Literally an “Astronaut” is a “Star Sailor” or “Star Navigator”, and a Cosmonaut is a “Universe  Sailor/Navigator”. Both terms are derived from old Greek.

The Mercury spacecraft is the United States’ first human space flight vehicle. Mercury launched in  1959 and continued in use until 1963. With no computers, all on-board systems were operated by  mechanical timers or by the single astronaut pilot. Both Mercury-Redstone and Mercury-Atlas  rockets launched this capsule, carrying astronauts to suborbital and orbital fl ights. Astronauts  could be no taller than 5 feet 11 inches (1.8 meters). Space was so restricted, designers had to  mold seats to fi t astronauts’ bodies.

Height: 11 ft, 4 in/345.4 cm
Mass: 3,000 lb /1360.8 kg
Maximum diameter: 74 in /188 cm

Mercury-Redstone 3, or Freedom 7, was the first United States human spaceflight, on May 5,  1961, piloted by astronaut Alan Shepard. It was the first crewed flight of Project Mercury. The  project had the ultimate objective of putting an astronaut into orbit around the Earth and return him  safely.


Glenn’s capsule was called “ Friendship 7 “, to continue a tradition of naming Mercury Spacecraft  with the number for good luck. Starting in 1958, the Mercury capsule was developed to be America’s first spacecraft.
It was  designed to be as lightweight as possible so that it could be lifted into orbit by available military  missiles.
The Astronaut wears a variation of the high altitude pressure suit used by navy pilots.

Glenn’s tiny pressurized capsule was his home for the flight’s five-hour duration.
Straps held him into the countered couch designed specially for his body.


He became famous for being the first American in space with the Mercury Redstone 3 capsule  (nicknamed Freedom 7) on 5.5.1961. He was also famous for being a crazy person. At the time of  its launch, in fact, counting all the previous attempts with the Redstones, the statistics spoke of a  58% of failures. Now, not all of the rockets had exploded, or not immediately: some had gone off  course and were detonated for safety, for example. Others had only half worked. However, if you  want to go into space and the rocket takes off in the wrong direction, it's not like you're in good  shape, so to speak.
Sheppard however, to make you understand the character, wanted to leave immediately after HAM. It was Von Brauna who wanted to make a test launch with a perfectly ready but unmanned  Mercury spacecraft, given the statistics available. It was this precaution that allowed the Soviets to  beat the Americans to the punch. Even if, I remind you, the Russians managed to make their  cosmonaut (who was he? Ask the visitors if they were paying attention) a full circle around the  earth, therefore a feat with an incredibly greater coefficient of difficulty. But Sheppard didn't think  about the rocket explosions. At best, his doubt was that he was the one doing something wrong  during the flight. Flight in which, to be honest, he didn't have to carry out what series of operations,  given that it was supposed to last 15 minutes in all. Nonetheless, it seems that his words, at the  launch, were "Please, dear God, do not let me fuck up". We would translate it with a colorful  “Please, dear Lord, don't let me screw it up”.
This elegant phrase is still known among aviators today as the "Sheppard Prayer".
In reality, there was still some problems. Feel a little.
Sheppard entered the spacecraft at 5.15am, just over two hours before the scheduled launch time  of 7.20am.
He had eaten a healthy breakfast: steak, eggs, toast, coffee and orange juice. The BREAKFAST  OF CHAMPIONS, in short, which will become a tradition among astronauts (very superstitious  people). However, at a certain point, while waiting for the launch, he began to feel a stimulus. He  radioed it to Goddard Space Flight Center.
"Guys, I'm peeing"
"good to know"
The answer was not too conciliatory. None of the technicians had foreseen the eventuality, the  flight would have been short and Alan, like a good boy, hadn't peed before leaving the house. He  just had to resist, there was no more time. At 7.05 in the morning, 15 minutes from time X, the  launch was however postponed to allow the passage of some clouds, because good visibility was  essential to take photographs of the earth. "Um .... I'm running away" "You keep it, the journey is very short"
The clouds passed, but the launch was postponed again, to fix the feeder better
"Think you are in the desert"
They didn't want to be mean, it's that to make him go to the bathroom they would have had to set  up the clean room, i.e. the clean and controlled environment, as well as wasting a lot of time  opening the tailgate of the Mercury. Sheppard had to wait. The flight would not last long anyway.  Having fixed the power supply, he resumed the countdown. To then stop it immediately after: you  have to restart a computer from the Flight Center.
"Guys, stop, I'll pee myself"
Panic at the Flight Center. Not for hygienic reasons, eh, that mattered little to everyone. The  problem is that urine is basically water, and water isn't ideal if you want to avoid short circuits. For  example, those of the medical electrodes fixed on the astronaut's body. Sheppard, however, would  not listen to reason. He said turn off the power to the electrodes and wet himself..
But since he was lying on his stomach, the liquid went up his back, up to his  shoulders….blahhhh…Sheppard's response to the concerns of the control room was that at least,  now, he was warm (laughter). Luckily the oxygen flowing through the suit dried everything out, and  the countdown started again. At 9.34 the rocket detached from the ground, sending Freedom 7 and  the unconscious astronaut into space. We will see it later, but our Sheppard in space will return to  it a second time, or rather, go to the moon. Apollo 14 mission, famous because it was the first and  only one in which an astronaut brought a club to play golf during the moon landing. I'll let you  guess who the genius came up with. The two balls hurled with reduced gravity still lie there, lost  among the craters of the Moon.

Valentina Tereshkova: Soviet’s first woman to fly in space was aboard the Vostok 6 space  capsule on June 16–19, 1963.

Hey sky, take off your hat, I'm on my way!
Once you've been in space, you appreciate how small and fragile the Earth is.
One cannot deny the great role women have played in the world community. My flight was yet  another impetus to continue this female contribution.
More women should actively participate in space flight. There are many well educated women  working in the space industry; they are very good candidates.

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